In 1966, Erast Gliner, a young physicist at the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute in Leningrad, proposed a hypothesis that very large stars should collapse into what could now be called Generic Objects of Dark Energy (GEODEs) that appear to be black holes when viewed from the outside but, unlike black holes, they contain dark energy instead of a singularity.
Astrophysicist Kevin Croker and mathematician Joel Weiner have identified and corrected a subtle error that was made when applying Einstein’s equations to model the growth of the universe that shows that this assumption can fail for the compact objects that remain after the collapse and explosion of very large stars.
Croker and Weiner demonstrated that the growth rate of the universe can become sensitive to the averaged contribution of such compact objects.
With the corrected formalism, Croker and Weiner showed that if a fraction of the oldest stars collapsed into GEODEs, instead of black holes, their averaged contribution today would naturally produce the required uniform Dark Energy.
Such systems were expected to exist, but the pair of objects was unexpectedly heavy–roughly 5 times larger than the black hole masses predicted in computer simulations.
Using the corrected formalism, Croker and Weiner considered whether LIGO-Virgo is observing double GEODE collisions, instead of double black hole collisions.
Croker and Weiner were careful to separate their theoretical result from observational support of a GEODE scenario, emphasizing that “black holes certainly aren’t dead.